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The balance between nucleation and growth determines the overall grain size and grain size distribution in the rock. If we know something about the relative magnitudes of interfacial energies we can make predictions about what these microstructures look like and therefore predict how fluids move through the Earth.

General sources Crystal nucleation and growth Topics covered in this introduction include nucleation (homogenous and heterogeneous, including the effects of pore size in nucleation inhibition) and crystal growth mechanisms. Chapter 4 (B 30.107 or on Moodle) Morphology Textural equilibrium Once reaction is over, and if the rock is not being deformed rapidly, microstructures evolve towards a minimum energy state, in which grain shape and the topology of minor phases (such as fluid) are controlled by interfacial energies.

There may be other books and papers that are suggested for particular parts of the course that are not featured on this list. Linking geochemical variations on the Reykjanes Ridge to V-Shaped Ridge record of mantle temperature variations. Practical 10: Crystallisation in the Icelandic crust Barometric methods: Cpx-liquid equilibria, Olivine-plagioclase-augite-liquid co-saturation. Lecture 5: Mckenzie, 1972, Active Tectonics of the Mediterranean Region, Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 30, p. England and Jackson, Active deformation of the continents, Ann. Jackson et al., 2008, New views on the structure and rheology of the lithosphere, Journal of the Geological Society, 165, p. Mc Kenzie & Priestley, 2016, Speculations on the formation of cratons and cratonic basins, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 435, p. Lecture 7: England and Jackson, Active deformation of the continents, Ann.

This list summarises the key reference texts [that are mostly in print] that you may wish to use throughout your second year of geology. Practical 9: Flow and melting of heterogeneous mantle under the North Atlantic - Understanding geochemical asymmetry around Iceland. Molnar & Gipson, 1994, Very long baseline interferometry and active rotations of crustal blocks in the Western Transverse Ranges, California, Bulletin of the Gological Society of America, 106, p. Bayasgalan et al., 1999, Field examples of strike-slip fault terminations in Mongolia and their tectonic significance, Tectonics, 18, p. Copley, 2014, Postseismic afterslip 30 years after the 1978 Tabas-e-Golshan (Iran) earthquake: observations and implications for the geological evolution of thrust belts, Geophysical Journal International, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu023. Bendick et al, Geodetic evidence for a low slip rate in the Altyn Tagh fault system, Nature, 404, 69-72, 2001 Lecture 6: Priestley & Mc Kenzie, 2006, The thermal structure of the lithosphere from shear wave velocities, Earth and Planetry Science Letters, 244, p. Mc Kenzie & Priestley, 2008, The influence of lithospheric thickness variations on continental evolution, Lithos, 102, p. Copley et al., 2014, Active faulting in apparently stable peninsular India: rift inversion and a Holocene-age great earthquake on the Tapti Fault, Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:10.1002/2014JB011294.

These references are for all lectures in this course.

Structure of the European upper mantle revealed by adjoint tomography. doi:10.1038/ngeo1501 Please note that if references are marked with an asterisk (*) ,they have been highlighted by your lecturers as being particularlyuseful to you.

Mapping the upper mantle: Three-dimensional modeling of earth structure by inversion of seismic waveforms. reading material is available on Cam Tools This is an introductory course on microstructures and how we can use them to interpret rock history, with particular application to igneous rocks.

This series is a collection of rocks, minerals and fossils used to aid the first year Geology students in their practical revision. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 328, 291–308. Seismic Observations of Splitting of the Mid-Transition Zone Discontinuity in Earth’s Mantle. doi:10.1126/science.1063524 Ritsema, J., van Heijst, H. The Rum magma chamber was likely to have been more typical of what we imagine shallow-level magma storage immediately feeding the overlying volcano. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. The classic Skaergaard intrusion is the one that started it all (and incidentally resulted in a hiatus in our developing understanding of magma plumbing systems as it is so iconic that no-one could imagine anything looking or behaving different to Skaergaard), forming from closed-system fractionation. Kristensen, E., Penha-Lopes, G., Delefosse, M., Valdemarsen, T., Quintana, C. Texts indicated with asterisks will be of use in more than one section of the course, and those marked ‘***’ are particularly recommended. (2011), Constraints on the depth and thermal history of cratonic lithosphere from peridotite xenoliths, xenocrysts and seismology, Essentials of Paleomagnetism - Lisa Tauxe (in the library and also all available on-line, IC/books/Tauxe/Essentials/)Magnetism in Condensed Matter - Stephen Blundell (in the library)Papers for later lectures and research seminar: Lecture 4: Nissen et al., 2011, New views on earthquake faulting in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt of Iran, Geophysical Journal International, 186, p. Talebian & Jackson, 2003, A reappraisal of earthquake focal mechanisms and active shortening in the Zagros Mountains of Iran, Geophysical Journal International, 156, p. Copley & Jackson, 2006 Active Tectonics of the Turkish-Iranian Plateau, Tectonics, 25, doi:10.1029/2005TC001906. England and Molnar, Active deformation of Asia: from kinematics to dynamics, Science, 278, 647-650, 1997. You may also want to use The Virtual Microscope web site in conjunction with the Reference series - or Vice Versa Recent texts are indicated thus ‘N’. Meade, Present-day kinematics of the India-Asia collision zone, Geology, 35, 81-84, 2007. Mc Kenzie et al, Characteristics and consequences of flow in the lower crust, J.

Harvard University Press, ISBN: 0-674-44075-7 Review paper: Berger, A., Milankovitch theory and climate, 23, 1001–1012. You may (eventually) wish to consider purchasing those marked **. Petrography of Icelandic basalts and crustal xenoliths.

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