Dating the book of judges
The late date option is Amosis (1580-1558) who overthrew the Hyksos which probably induced a backlash against the related Hebrews.This gives an oppression of 134 years for the early date and 310 years for the late date. Thutmose II is another contender for the late Exodus band. The next issue that we have to decide is the identity of the Pharaoh who died whilst Moses was in Midian.Most late date supporters suggest that 480 is arrived at by totalling different values for several periods which actually overlapped.Various formulas for this are suggested However early date supporters would say that the text includes nothing about totals of other periods, just 480 years.The next point of contention is that of the beginning of the sojourn. Anderson's view that it is improbable that a Hyksos King would have given the daughter of the priest of On to Joseph as his wife (Gen.The late date argument allows the descent into Egypt to occur when the Hyksos ruled. Anderson says that it is certain that it must be after or during the Hyksos period as a reference to a chariot in Gen. The Early date would give a date 1876 for the Sojourn under Pharaoh Senusert III who has no special reasons for supporting the Hebrews. ) as the Hyksos despised the sun-God Ra whose temple was at On. Whatever the case the Hyksos period would have been a favourable time for the Hebrew entry.On the other hand, Seti I began work on the capital city Pi-Rameses on the site of what had been the Hyksos capital of Avaris in the Nile Delta, work which was completed in the reign of Rameses II.Contemporary papyri speak of "men making their quota of Bricks daily", and officials not having enough straw to make the bricks , which fits in well with the context of Exodus chapter 5. However, early date supporters point out that the text refers to store cities not capital cities. Wright after discussing the possibility of dating the Exodus in c.1446 on the basis of 1 Kings 6:1, writes: "Now that the site of Rameses has been located at Tanis, we are forced to conclude that this figure must be explained in another way." Early date supporters point out that the city Rameses has been located at other places and is by no means certain. Some early date supporters regard Exod. as a interpolation.
Clearly Israel must have still been in Egypt during the reign of the Pharaoh who built the store cities mentioned in Exod..
He ruled with his step mother Hatshepsut for 22 years but persecuted her favourites after her death. Early date supporters favour Thutmose III (1504-1450) mentioned above as a late date oppression initiator.
His reign (including the joint reign with Hatshepsut) totalling 54 years is the only one of any Pharaoh which fits in with the story of Moses' flight and 40 year stay in Midian (Exod.-23). was the one whom he fled from 40 years earlier there is no suitable Pharaoh for a late date except for Rameses II (1290-1224) though some scholars, (e.g. Late date supporters again see the figure of 40 years as symbolic so that Seti I (1312-1289) could have been the Pharaoh of Moses' day.
There are also indications of work gangs having days off for religious festival, cf. However this does not change the fact that the name of one of the cities indicates that it was constructed in honour of Rameses II (1290-1224). Bimson argues that the text of Exodus was altered to give a contemporary name to the city which the Israelites built hundreds of years earlier. These occasions occur several times in the OT.
Another suggestion is that the terms Rameses and Raamses (KJV) were once separate terms the latter meaning "born of Ra".
He is "the new king who did not know anything about Joseph." Early date supporters would identify him as a Hyksos ruler.