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The legacy of the colonial divide-and-rule tactics is still felt.The war for liberation started in 1961 with rebellions in Luanda and the northern region.Angola has a young population, over 45 percent of which is below fifteen years of age. Over the years, the urban population has grown strongly and more than half the people now live in towns. Many Angolans are bilingual, speaking Portuguese and one or several African languages.The capital, Luanda, has drawn in many immigrants—a quarter of all residents now live there. In nearly all cases this is a Bantu language; those speaking a Khoisan language number less than 6,000.
Since a census has not been held since 1970, the figures are difficult to evaluate.Also, the numbers fluctuate as people attempt to flee when the fighting is intense and return when the fighting has calmed down.It is estimated that in May 2000, 350,700 Angolans lived outside the country and another 2.5 million to 4 million were displaced within the national borders.The Kongo, Ndongo, and Ovimbundu kingdoms had early contact with the Portuguese, who in the sixteenth century created colonies on the coast.Wars fought against the immigrant Portuguese, such as that waged by Queen Njinga of the Ndongo kingdom, often have been interpreted in a nationalistic framework.
Apart from large rivers such as the Zaire, Kwanza (Cuanza), Kunene, Kubango (Cubango), Zambezi, and Kuando, there are many smaller rivers, some of which are not perennial.